Sunday, March 26, 2017 - 04:37 AM
Home
 
  Main Menu

  Foreign Test Preparation

  Advertisement
Advertisement

  Test Samples IELTS (Academic)

How can I prepare for IELTS?
It is not necessary to attend an IELTS preparation course though it is, of course, a good idea to prepare thoroughly for the test. You can arrange a variety of test materials. British Council itself offers a preparation kit whereas you can also buy preparation material from other publishers as well. 
  Academic Reading Sample

Reading Task 1 (Wind Power in the Us).
Prompted by the oil crises of the 1970s, a wind-power industry flourished briefly in the United States. But then world oil prices dropped, and funding for research into renewable energy was cut. By the mid 1980s US interest in wind energy as a large-scale source of energy had almost disappeared. The development of wind power at this time suffered not only from badly designed equipment, but also from poor long-term planning, economic projections that were too optimistic and the difficulty of finding suitable locations for the wind turbines. 

Only now are technological advances beginning to offer hope that wind power will come to be accepted as a reliable and important source of electricity. There have been significant successes in California, in particular, where wind farms now have a capacity of 1500 megawatts, comparable to a large nuclear or fossil-fuelled power station, and produce 1.5 per cent of the state's electricity.

Nevertheless, in the U.S., the image of wind power is still distorted by early failures. One of the most persistent criticisms is that wind power is not a significant energy resource. Researchers at the Battelle Northwest Laboratory, however, estimate that today wind turbine technology could supply 20 per cent of the electrical power the country needs. As a local resource, wind power has even greater potential. Minnesota's energy commission calculates that a wind farm on one of the state's southwestern ridges could supply almost all that state's electricity. North Dakota alone has enough sites suitable for wind farms to supply more than a third of all electricity consumed in the continental US.

The prevailing notion that wind power is too costly results largely from early research, which focused on turbines with huge blades that stood hundreds of meters tall. These machines were not designed for ease of production or maintenance, and they were enormously expensive. Because the major factors influencing the overall cost of wind power are the cost of the turbine and its supporting systems, including land, as well as operating and maintenance costs, it is hardly surprising that it was thought at the time that wind energy could not be supplied at a commercially competitive price. More recent developments such as those seen on California wind farms have dramatically changed the economic picture for wind energy. These systems, like installations in Hawaii and several European countries have benefited from the economies of scale that come through standardized manufacturing and purchasing. The result has been a dramatic drop in capital costs: the installed cost of new wind turbines stood at $1000 per kilowatt in 1993, down from about $4000 per kilowatt in 1980, and continues to fall. Design improvements and more efficient maintenance programs for large numbers of turbines have reduced operating costs as well. The cost of electricity delivered by wind farm turbines has decreased from about 30 cents per kilowatt-hour to between 7 and 9 cents, which is generally less than the cost of electricity from conventional power stations. Reliability has also improved dramatically. The latest turbines run more than 95 per cent of the time, compared with around 60 per cent in the early 1980s. Another misconception is that improved designs are needed to make wind power feasible. Out of the numerous wind turbine designs proposed or built by inventors or developers, the propeller-blade type, which is based on detailed analytical models as well as extensive experimental data, has emerged as predominant among the more than 20,000 machines now in commercial operation world-wide. Like the gas-driven turbines that power jet aircraft, these are sophisticated pieces of rotating machinery. They are already highly efficient, and there is no reason to believe that other configurations will produce major benefits. Like other ways of generating electricity, wind power does not leave the environment entirely unharmed. There are many potential problems, ranging from interference with telecommunications to impact on wildlife and natural habitats. But these effects must be balanced against those associated with other forms of electricity generation. Conventional power stations impose hidden costs on society, such as the control of air pollution, the management of nuclear waste and global warming. As wind power has been ignored in the US over the past few years, expertise and commercial exploitation in the field have shifted to Europe. The European Union spends 10 times as much as the US government on research and development of wind energy. It estimates that at least 10 per cent of Europe's electrical power could be supplied by land-based wind-turbines using current technology. Indeed, according to the American Wind Energy Association, an independent organization based in Washington, Denmark, Britain, Spain and the Netherlands will each surpass the US in the generating capacity of wind turbines installed during the rest of the decade.

Glossary 
Fossil fuel: coal, oil and natural gas
Kilowatt: 1,000 watts; a watt is a unit of power 
Kilowatt-hour: one kilowatt for a period of one hour 
Megawatt: one million watts 
Wind farm: a group of wind turbines in one location producing a large amount of electricity 
Wind turbine: a machine which produces energy when the wind turns its blades

Questions 1 - 5
Complete the summary below using words from the box (given below). Write your answers in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet. 

NB: There are more words or phrases than you will need to fill the gaps. You may use any word or phrase more than once.

Example
The failure during the late 1970s and early 1980s of an attempt to establish a widespread wind power industry in the United States resulted largely from the ...(1)... in oil prices during this period. The industry is now experiencing a steady ...(2)... due to improvements in technology and an increased awareness of the potential in the power of wind. The wind turbines that are now being made based in part on the ...(3)... of wide-ranging research in Europe, are easier to manufacture and maintain than their predecessors. This has led wind-turbine makers to be able to standardize and thus minimize ...(4).... There has been growing ...(5)... of the importance of wind power as an energy source. 

Criticism

Success

Design costs

Production costs

Failure

Stability

Operating costs

Fall

Growth

Recognition

Skepticism

Decisions

Effects

Decline

Results


  Questions 6 10
Look at the following issues (Questions 6-10) and the list of implications below (A-C). Match each issue with the correct implication. Write the correct letter A-C in boxes 6-10 on your answer sheet.
N.B. You may use any letter more than once.
Example
The current price of one wind-generated kilowatt... Answer A 
Issues
(6)... The recent installation of systems taking advantage of economies of scale...(2) The potential of meeting one fifth of current US energy requirements by wind power ... (3)... The level of acceptance of current wind turbine technology ...(4)... A comparison of costs between conventional and wind power sources.... (5)... The view of wind power in the European Union...
Implications
A. Provides evidence against claims that electricity produced from wind power is relatively expensive.
B. Supports claim that wind power is an important source of energy.
C. Opposes the view that wind power technology requires further development.
  Academic Writing Sample

Writing Task 1

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information below.

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task

Write at least 150 words.

Writing Task 2

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Present a written argument or case to an educated reader with no specialist knowledge of the following topic.

It is inevitable that as technology develops so traditional cultures must be lost. Technology and tradition are incompatible - you cannot have both together. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

You should use your own ideas, knowledge and experience and support your arguments with examples and relevant evidence.

Write at least 250 words.

  Speaking Sample

There are three main parts to the IELTS Speaking Module. 

In Part one the candidate answers general questions about themselves, their home/family and other such personal topics.  This part lasts about four-five minutes. 

Part Two is sampled below:

Speaking Part Two Sample

Describe a teacher who has greatly influenced you in your education.

You should say:

Where you met them;

What subject they taught;

What was special about them?

And explain why this person influenced you so much.

You will have to talk about the topic for 1 to 2 minutes. You have one minute to think about what you are going to say. You can make some notes if you wish. 


In Part Three the candidate and Examiner engage in a discussion of more abstract issues and concepts which are related to the topic in Part Two.

Advertisement
 
      
 
  |
Most Visited Topics
             
    Learn English   Universities   Study Abroad   Mobile & SMS   Computer & Laptop  
 
Learn English Language
Pakistan Universities
Student Visa for USA
Free Mobilink SMS
Computer Tips  
 
Easy Conversation
Foreign Universities
Student Visa for UK
Free Telenor SMS
Computer Rates  
 
Improve Vocabulary
Online Results
Student Visa for Spain
Free Zong SMS
Buy or Sell Laptops  
 
IELTS & TOEFL
Online Jobs
Student Visa for Italy
Free Ufone SMS
Handmade Embroidery  
 
English to Urdu Dictionary
Newspapaer Jobs
Student Visa for France
Free Warid SMS
Diploma Courses  
                     
Copyright © 2005-2017. All rights reserved ® 123freenet.com
Currently 38 Users Online