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 English Grammar.

 Uses of Noun
 Count & noncount Nouns
 Articles (definite, in“defi)
 Possesive Adjectives
 Possesive Pronouns
 Objectives Pronouns
 Reflexive Pronouns
 Relative Pronouns
 Demo Adjectives & pro
 Two-word verbs
 Troublesome Verbs
 The Present Tense
 Present perfect tense
 Past Tense
 Questions in Past tense
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 Imperative (command)
 Causative Verbs have and   Let
 Using "A few, few, A little..
 Using "Some" and "Any"
 Using Comparisons
 Using Should
 Past form of Should
 Expectation and shoud
Using Could
Expressing necessity
Using May and Might
 Progressive May & might. Using Would
Using Gerunds
 Using Whose
Using Where
Using When
If-then Constructions
Using Conjunctions
 The Passive voice
Direct & Indirect speech

  Passive Voice and......

The Passive Voice
In other sections, you have seen verbs used in the active voice. The passive voice is sometimes used in English as well. With the active voice, the agent or subject comes before the verb. With the passive, the subject (either stated or implied) follows the verb and is usually preceded with the word by:
--The doctor wrote a prescription.
--The prescription was written by the doctor.
NOTE: In the passive, the object of the active verb becomes the subject.
To make the passive, use the appropriate form of the verb to be + past participle. Only transitive verbs are used in the passive:
ACTIVE: Fred helps Jane.
PASSIVE: Jane is helped by Fred.
ACTIVE: He is helping her.
PASSIVE: She is being helped by him.
ACTIVE: He has helped her.
PASSIVE: She has been helped by him.
ACTIVE: He helped her.
PASSIVE: She was helped by him.
ACTIVE: He was helping her.
PASSIVE: She was being helped by him.
ACTIVE: He had helped her.
PASSIVE: She had been helped by him.
ACTIVE: He will help her.
PASSIVE: She will be helped by him.
ACTIVE: He is going to help her.
PASSIVE: She is going to be helped by him.
Usually the by phrase is omitted in a passive sentence. The passive is used mainly when it is not known or not important to know who was responsible for the action:
--The house was built in 1960.
(The by phrase is left out because it is understood that builders built the house).

Direct and Indirect Speech
In newspapers, magazines, and books, you will often see quoted or direct speech:
--They said, "We have no record of this transaction."
--He stated, "I don't know what happened."

In spoken English, reported or indirect speech will be used instead:
--They said that they had no record of this transaction.
--He stated that he didn't know what happened.

In reported or indirect speech, no quotation marks are used and the subject of the main clause and the dependent clause are the same.

Here are some rules for tense usage in indirect speech:
1. If the main verb of the sentence is in the past (said, reported, stated, etc.), the verb in the dependent clause will also be in the past.
2. Here is a chart indicating typical transformations:

simple present-->simple past
present progressive-->perfect progressive
present perfect-->past perfect
simple past-->past perfect
--I said, "She reads the pap^-^-^-^-^-^er everyday."
-->I said she read the paper everyday.
--I said, "She is reading the paper everyday."
-->I said she was reading the paper....
--I said, "She has read the paper everyday."
-->I said she had read the paper....
--I said, "She read the paper everyday."
-->I said she had read the paper....
--I said, "She will read the paper everyday."
-->I said she would read the paper....
In reported speech, an imperative will change to an infinitive. Furthermore, say will be replaced by a form of tell:
--He said, "Show me your passport."
-->He told me to show my passport.


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